Dating brick bonds

This creates a shallow shelf called a water table. A rare example of an early 18 th -century Virginia dwelling incorporating English bond throughout is the Lynnhaven house, in what is now the city of Virginia Beach. Figure 4 Constructed in , the compact but finely crafted residence has scattered glazed headers enlivening the wall surfaces. Quarter-round molded bricks cap the water table. The haunches of the massive end chimneys have tiled weatherings—bricks laid flat on the chimney slopes or haunches.

The term is derived from the fact that chimney haunches in England were often covered with flat ceramic roofing tiles. Because English bond is somewhat stronger than Flemish bond, it commonly is reserved for foundations in 18 th -century buildings, but with Flemish bond in the main surfaces above. Typical is the ca. While not as decorative as Flemish bond, it can lend an air of solidity and virility to a wall surface.

Figure 7 Subsequent additions are of different styles and materials. Virginia Museum, addition Loth. Portions of its walls exhibit standard Flemish bond with glazed headers. The lower courses start with fairly regular Flemish bond, but proceeding upwards, the brickwork morphs into a struggle between Flemish and English, then tops off with courses of irregular English. Figure 9 The upper courses attempt to fake Flemish bond by alternating glazed headers with non-glazed ones. Yeocomico Church, south wall Loth. What the British describe as garden wall bond is a functional bond related to English bond, consisting of a course of headers alternating with three courses of stretchers.

We often identify it more specifically by its number of stretcher courses, e. It normally has an uneven number of stretcher courses to prevent alignment of vertical joints. New England examples of three-course common or American bond can date from the early 18 th century as seen in the end walls of the ca. Short House, Newbury, Massachusetts Loth. Five- and seven-course American bond became standard for secondary walls throughout the 19 th century and into the 20 th century.

The side and rear walls of most townhouses were built with place bricks—rougher, cheaper bricks, which were mortared with plain flush joints instead of carefully tooled ones. Mortar placed horizontally below or top of a brick is called a bed, and mortar Placed vertically between bricks is called a perpend. Brick made with just rectilinear dimensions is called a solid brick. Bricks might have depression on both beds or single bed these are called frogged bricks an the depression is called frog.

Perforated bricks have holes through the bed to bed cutting it all the way. Parts of brickwork include bricks , beds and perpends. The bed is the mortar upon which a brick is laid. A brick is given a classification based on how it is laid, and how the exposed face is oriented relative to the face of the finished wall.

The practice of laying uncut full-sized bricks wherever possible gives brickwork its maximum possible strength. In the diagrams below, such uncut full-sized bricks are coloured as follows:. Occasionally though a brick must be cut to fit a given space, or to be the right shape for fulfilling some particular purpose such as generating an offset—called a lap —at the beginning of a course. In the diagrams below, some of the cuts most commonly used for generating a lap are coloured as follows:. A nearly universal rule in brickwork is that perpends should not be contiguous across courses.

Walls, running linearly and extending upwards, can be of varying depth or thickness. Typically, the bricks are laid also running linearly and extending upwards, forming wythes or leafs. It is as important as with the perpends to bond these leaves together. Historically, the dominant method for consolidating the leaves together was to lay bricks across them, rather than running linearly.

Brickwork observing either or both of these two conventions is described as being laid in one or another bond. A leaf is as thick as the width of one brick, but a wall is said to be one brick thick if it as wide as the length of a brick. Accordingly, a single-leaf wall is a half brick thickness; a wall with the simplest possible masonry transverse bond is said to be one brick thick, and so on. The thickness specified for a wall is determined by such factors as damp proofing considerations, whether or not the wall has a cavity, load-bearing requirements, expense, and the era during which the architect was or is working.

The Monadnock Building in Chicago, for example, is a very tall masonry building, and has load-bearing brick walls nearly two metres thick at the base. At these more modest wall thicknesses, distinct patterns have emerged allowing for a structurally sound layout of bricks internal to each particular specified thickness of wall. The advent during the mid twentieth century of the cavity wall saw the popularisation and development of another method of strengthening brickwork—the wall tie.

A cavity wall comprises two totally discrete walls, separated by an air gap, which serves both as barrier to moisture and heat. Despite there being no masonry connection between the leaves, their transverse rigidity still needs to be guaranteed. This bond has one stretcher between headers, with the headers centred over the stretchers in the courses below.

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Where a course begins with a quoin stretcher, the course will ordinarily terminate with a quoin stretcher at the other end. The next course up will begin with a quoin header. For the course's second brick, a queen closer is laid, generating the lap of the bond. The third brick along is a stretcher, and is—on account of the lap—centred above the header below. This second course then resumes its paired run of stretcher and header, until the final pair is reached, whereupon a second and final queen closer is inserted as the penultimate brick, mirroring the arrangement at the beginning of the course, and duly closing the bond.

Some examples of Flemish bond incorporate stretchers of one colour and headers of another. This effect is commonly a product of treating the header face of the heading bricks while the bricks are being baked as part of the manufacturing process.

English Bond and its Kin

Some of the header faces are exposed to wood smoke, generating a grey-blue colour, while other simply vitrified until they reach a deeper blue colour. Some headers have a glazed face, caused by using salt in the firing. Sometimes Staffordshire Blue bricks are used for the heading bricks.

Brickwork that appears as Flemish bond from both the front and the rear is double Flemish bond , so called on account of the front and rear duplication of the pattern. If the wall is arranged such that the bricks at the rear do not have this pattern, then the brickwork is said to be single Flemish bond. Flemish bond brickwork with a thickness of one brick is the repeating pattern of a stretcher laid immediately to the rear of the face stretcher, and then next along the course, a header.

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A lap correct overlap is generated by a queen closer on every alternate course:. Double Flemish bond of one brick's thickness: The colour-coded plans highlight facing bricks in the east-west wall. An elevation for this east-west wall is shown to the right. A simple way to add some width to the wall would be to add stretching bricks at the rear, making a Single Flemish bond one and a half bricks thick:.

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Overhead sections of alternate odd and even courses of single Flemish bond of one and a half bricks' thickness. For a double Flemish bond of one and a half bricks' thickness, facing bricks and the bricks behind the facing bricks may be laid in groups of four bricks and a half-bat.

The half-bat sits at the centre of the group and the four bricks are placed about the half-bat, in a square formation. These groups are laid next to each other for the length of a course, making brickwork one and a half bricks thick.

To preserve the bond, it is necessary to lay a three-quarter bat instead of a header following a quoin stretcher at the corner of the wall. This fact has no bearing on the appearance of the wall; the choice of brick appears to the spectator like any ordinary header:.

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Overhead plans of alternate odd and even courses of double Flemish bond of one and a half bricks' thickness. This pattern generates brickwork a full two bricks thick:. Overhead sections of alternate odd and even courses of double Flemish bond of two bricks' thickness. Overhead sections of alternate odd and even courses of double Flemish bond of two and a half bricks' thickness.

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This pattern generates brickwork a full three bricks thick:. Overhead sections of alternate odd and even courses of double Flemish bond of three bricks' thickness.

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  • English Bond and its Kin - Institute of Classical Architecture & Art!
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This bond has two stretchers between every header with the headers centred over the perpend between the two stretchers in the course below in the bond's most symmetric form. The great variety of monk bond patterns allow for many possible layouts at the quoins, and many possible arrangements for generating a lap. A quoin brick may be a stretcher, a three-quarter bat, or a header. Queen closers may be used next to the quoins, but the practice is not mandatory.

Monk bond may however take any of a number of arrangements for course staggering. The disposal of bricks in these often highly irregular raking patterns can be a challenging task for the bricklayer to correctly maintain while constructing a wall whose courses are partially obscured by scaffold, and interrupted by door or window openings, or other bond-disrupting obstacles. If the bricklayer frequently stops to check that bricks are correctly arranged, then masonry in a raking monk bond can be expensive to build. Occasionally, brickwork in such a raking monk bond may contain minor errors of header and stretcher alignment some of which may have been silently corrected by incorporating a compensating irregularity into the brickwork in a course further up the wall.

In spite of these complexities and their associated costs, the bond has proven a common choice for constructing brickwork in the north of Europe.

Brick Masonry Construction

The Stretcher bond is more commonly found in present modern housing as it is suitable for a single brick skin allowing for a cavity and block wall behind. Prior to bricks were hand-made in Wooden moulds. In the 17th and early 18th centuries bricks tended to be long and thin with irregularities in the shape, surfaces and edges giving a relatively rough texture. During the 18th century bricks became shorter and deeper, more regular and smoother. After machine made bricks of uniform regular shape and finish Errol Brick Company Limited Scotland.

Links to Brickwork Articles. The Historic Development by Gerard Lynch.